Agriculture in emerging and developing nations covers so many different farming landscapes, geography, countries, climates and peoples. There also vast differences in terms of crops, livestock, arable land, climate, water, soils, topography, pests and diseases within and between countries. Globalisation offers opportunities for growth and development in all parts of the world, however, in merging and developing economies the benefits of rapid liberalisation of trade and finance have not so far been fulfilled, in particular according to least developing countries, according to the UNDP 2007.
On the other hand, this sector also involves the private players in form of multinationals whose lines of business include the production, processing and trading of agricultural and horticultural products and foods including the supply of input materials such as equipment and seeds. In emerging and developing nations the major players include firms such as Cargill, Dreyfuss, Bunge, Monsanto, Archer Daniels, Nestle, Syngenta etc. These conglomerates have substantial presence and operations all over the emerging and developing world. Private investors and foreign companies exert control over markets and infrastructure that they have regularly been perceived to account for largest share and control of the global agribusiness but in return they provide jobs, expertise and investment and without them they would be in an even more problematic situation in terms of their agricultural development
On a micro level emerging and developing nations face many difficulties, both internal and external, in their efforts to develop their agriculture businesses and to achieve their objectives of poverty reduction through improving food security and increasing export earnings. In addition to low productivity, inflexible production and trade structures, low skill capacity, low life expectancy and educational attainments, poor infrastructure, and deficient institutional and policy frameworks. Developing countries also face fierce competitive external trading environment due to growing integration of markets, globalisation and liberalisation. Some countries in central America, south east Asia, southern and central Africa rely on the earnings from exports range of primary commodities such as copper that are highly vulnerable to instability in supply, demand and a decline in terms of trade. Furthermore, agriculture in emerging and developing nation is susceptible to weather conditions which determine the level of harvest and, therefore, with each country's domestic supply often varying along with the weather.
Given the rapid pace of globalisation, the external economic environment presents major challenges as well as opportunities for agriculture in the emerging and developing nations to flourish. New technologies are bringing down the cost of communications dramatically, which should benefit remote, more sparsely populated areas with poor roads. Biotechnology (with appropriate safeguards) offers opportunities for more rapid technological advances if there is sufficient investment in their application to the crops and problems in the emerging and developing nations. In addition, globalised markets and the implementation of trade agreements should bring benefits for these countries and help in overcoming their supply and competitiveness constraints. Visum global and it partners have the expertise and skills to provide sound professional advice to NGOs, and governments on agriculture policies, capacity building, investors options available to land owners, for private investors we able to provide professional advice on the target market to help you make balanced decision.